How to Design & Build
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right motor and battery are both essential for building a successful
ornithopter. Here, I will explain some of the different options
and how to choose the right power system. How much power is needed,
exactly? For typical membrane-winged ornithopters, about 100 watts
per kilogram coming out of the motor should be enough power to give
your ornithopter a good rate of climb. As ornithopters continue
to improve, it should be possible to get by on somewhat less. Estimates
of the mechanical power required for bird flight vary over the range
of about 10 to 50 watts per kilogram.
ornithopters are powered by rubber band. The rubber band combines
the functions of motor and battery in one super-convenient package.
The rubber band can produce a large amount of torque, so you don't
need any gear reduction to flap the wings of your ornithopter. You
can simply use a thicker rubber band if you need more power. For
all these reasons, rubber-powered ornithopters are by far the easiest
to design and build, and definitely the place to start!
The grade of
rubber is very important. Contest rubber intended specifically for
flying models will store several times more energy than standard,
office-grade rubber bands. Impressive
flight times can be achieved in lightweight models. Roy White holds
the record for indoor, rubber-powered ornithopters at 21 minutes,
ornithopters are powered by an electric motor and battery. There
are several types of electric motor that may be used in an ornithopter.
The selection of motor type will depend on your specific project.
brushed motor is the oldest type and the most familiar to most people.
These motors have a central, rotating shaft called the "armature".
The armature has coils of wire that serve as electromagnets to make
the armature rotate. They act against permanent magnets in the motor
casing. Electrically conductive "brushes" transfer power
to the rotating shaft. The electrical contacts are designed so that,
as the armature rotates, the electromagnets are switched on and
off in a specific sequence, which allows continuous rotation. Brushed
motors are the least expensive type, and a properly selected
brushed motor will supply enough power for most ornithopter needs.
It is important
to realize that the amount of power depends more on the windings
rather than the size of the motor. Two identical-looking motors
can have completely different performance. Therefore you must buy
a good motor that is intended for model aircraft, rather than trying
to use random motors that you take out of some toy.
- Tip: Tiny
"pager" or coreless motors are great for indoor and
micro-sized ornithopters. These inexpensive motors are what makes
pagers and cell phones vibrate. They are a special type of brushed
motor that has no iron core in the armature.
In a "brushless"
type motor, the electromagnets are switched on and off electronically,
so there are no mechanical contacts. This is more efficient, but
it requires a special electronic device called a brushless motor
controller. This makes them more expensive than brushed motors.
you want to use the "outrunner" type of brushless motor.
These motors have an outer casing that rotates, while the inner
electromagnets remain stationary. Outrunners
tend to operate at a lower speed and higher torque compared with
other motors. For that reason, they don't need as much gear reduction.
However, if you have an ornithopter that was already designed for
a high-RPM motor, you might consider using one of the regular "inrunner"
type brushless motors.
of motor you use, there is an optimal way of loading the motor.
If you make the wings bigger, the motor will run slower. If you
make the wings smaller, the motor will run faster. You will get
the greatest motor efficiency if you adjust the size of the wings
so that the motor is running at about 80% of the speed that it would
turn with no load. You can run the motor at lower speeds to get
more power, but then it becomes less efficient. At about 60% of
the free RPM, the motor is at its maximum power output, and below
that, you are just going to burn out the motor. You may not want
to change the size of the wings, in which case you can adjust the
gear ratio or flapping amplitude instead.
is just as important as the motor for determining power output.
There are several types of battery on the market. You will probably
use some type of rechargeable lithium battery in your ornithopter.
The most common are lithium-polymer batteries, abbreviated "Li-poly".
These are in the form of rectangular foil packs, and they produce
3.7 volts per cell. They are the same batteries used in portable
electronic devices. Another option is the A123 or "lithium
iron phosphate" technology. These batteries are safer and have
a higher power output than Li-poly batteries. Regardless of which
type you choose, it is important to use the correct type of charger
for your particular battery.
Birds use their
body fat to store energy for flight. It contains seventy times more
energy, for its weight, than our best batteries. That is the main
reason why birds can make long distance flights, whereas battery-powered
ornithopters or model airplanes typically fly for half an hour or
engines have been used in ornithopters. Normally, a pull-start engine
equipped with a centrifugal clutch and a large heat-sink would be
used, similar to what would be found in an RC helicopter or car.
Despite the high energy density of the fuels, internal combustion
engines are far less efficient than electric motors. Combined with
the difficulties of starting, cooling, exhaust, and noise, this
weighs against the use of internal combustion engines in most ornithopters.
They should be considered for manned ornithopters, or in special
applications where the required flight duration cannot be achieved